Turkish Constitutional Law
Materials in English
I. Ottoman Constitutional Documents
1. The Rescript of Gülhane Gülhane Hatt-ı Hümayunu 3 November 1839
(Français - le hatti-chérif de Gulhané: http://mjp.univ-perp.fr/constit/tr1839.htm )
2. Rescript of Reform Islahat Fermanı 18 February 1856
3. The Ottoman Constitution, 23 December 1876
(Français - Constitution ottomane de 1876: http://mjp.univ-perp.fr/constit/tr1876.htm
4. Revised Articles of the 1876 Constitution, August 1909
Ömer Faruk Gençkaya's Web Site http://www.bilkent.edu.tr/~genckaya/documents1.html
Alan Fisher's "History 373 Web Page" http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst373/Gulhane.html
II. The Constitutions of the Turkish Rebuplic
1. The 1921 Constitution
The English translation of the 1921 Constitution of 1921 is not available. But an English translation of the selections from the 1921 Constitution can be found at http://www.bilkent.edu.tr/~genckaya/1921C.html (by Ö. F. Gençkaya).
(Français - Constitution turque de 1921: http://mjp.univ-perp.fr/constit/tr1921.htm )
2. The 1924 Constitution
The English Translations of the 1924 Turkish Constitution:
The Turkish Constitution, New York, 1949, 19 p.
Edward Mead Earle,
New Constitution of Turkey",
Political Science Quarterly,
Vol. 40, No. 1
(Mar., 1925), pp.73-100
( Français - Constitution de la République turque de 1924: http://mjp.univ-perp.fr/constit/tr1924.htm )
3. The 1961 Constitution
The English Translations of the 1961 Constitution:
- Sadık Balkan, Ahmet E. Uysal and Kemal H. Karpat (Translated for the Committee of National Unity by), Constitution of the Turkish Republic, Ankara, 1961, 48 pages.
- Sadik Balkan, Ahmet E. Uysal and Kemal H. Karpat (Trans.), "Constitution of the Turkish Republic (text)", Middle East Journal, 1962, Vol. 16, p.15-38.
- Sadık Balkan, Ahmet E. Uysal and Kemal H. Karpat (Trans.), "Constitution of the Turkish Republic" in Amos J. Peaslee (ed.), Constitutions of Nations, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 3rd Edition by Dorothy Peaslee Xydis, 1968, vol. III: "Europe", p.1156-1194
- The Turkish Constitution as Amended, Ankara, Office of the Prime Minister, Directorate General of Press and Information [Başbakanlık Basımevi], 1978, 88 pages.
- "Turkey", in Albert P. Blaustein and Gisbert H. Flanz, Constitutions of the Countries of the Worlds, Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1976.
- Constitution of the Turkish Republic (Translated for the Committee of National Unity by Sadık Balkan, Ahmet E. Uysal and Kemal H. Karpat), Ankara, 1961, 48 pages. [PDF] http://www.anayasa.gen.tr/1961constitution-text.pdf (5 MB). (Reproduced with the permission of Kemal H. Karpat) (Permission Document: E-mail from. K.H. Karpat, March 21, 2006)
- The Turkish Constitution as Amended, Ankara, Office of the Prime Minister, Directorate General of Press and Information [Basbakanlik Basimevi], 1978, 88 pages. (Translated by Mustafa Gerçeker, Erhan Yasar and Orhan Tung). [PDF] http://www.anayasa.gen.tr/1961constitution-amended.pdf (6,75 MB) (Reproduced with the permission of Directorate General of Press and Information. Permission Document: E-mail from Orhan Tung, dated April 28, 2006)
4. The 1982 Constitution
The English Translations of the 1982 Constitution:
- Prime Ministry, Directorate General of Press and Information, The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, Ankara, 1984.
- Ömer Faruk Gençkaya, "Republic of Turkey," in Gisbert H. Flanz (ed.) Constitutions of the Countries of the World, Release 95-7, Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., November 1995. xi + 8 p.
- Ömer Faruk Gençkaya, "Recent Constitutional Amendments to the 1982 Constitution of Turkey," in Gisbert H. Flanz (ed.), Constitutions of the Countries of the World, Release 99-7, Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., November 1999. 14 p.
- Ömer Faruk Gençkaya, "Politics of Constitutional Amendment in Turkey, 1987-2002," with a revised and updated translation of the 1982 Constitution of Republic of Turkey, in Gisbert H. Flanz (ed.), Constitutions of the Countries of the World, Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., February 2003.
-From Web Site of TBMM: https://global.tbmm.gov.tr/docs/constitution_en.pdf
- Web Site of the Office of the Prime Minister, Directorate General of Press and Information: http://www.byegm.gov.tr/mevzuat/anayasa/anayasa-ing.htm
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupc/ca/cag/I142.htm (removed). But see: http://www.constitution.org/cons/turkey/turk_cons.htm
- The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Turkey:
- CODICES: http://codices.coe.int/NXT/gateway.dll?f=templates&fn=default.htm CODICES > Constitutions > English > Turkey
- ICL (International Constitutional Law): http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/tu00000_.html
- The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey  (Translated by Erhan Yasar) (Version including amendments of 1987, 1993 and 1995). http://www.anayasa.gen.tr/1982Constitution-EYasar.htm (Originally published in the web site of "Legislation Profile Turkey")
Français: Constitution de la République turque de 1924: http://mjp.univ-perp.fr/constit/tr1982.htm )
III. An Outline of Turkish Constitutional Developments and the 1982 Constitution
A. Turkish Embassy in Washington, DC. http://www.turkishembassy.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=25&Itemid=287
|Constitution and Foundations of the State System|
|Turkish Presidents and Prime Ministers|
|Political Parties and Election System|
|Defense and Security Policy Structures|
B. Turkey Almanac 2004, p.149-173 (This book has been prepared by the Turkish News Agency for the Directorate General of Press & Information of the Prime Ministry)
The State Order, The Constitution, The Legal System http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/kitaplar/turkiye2004/content/english/p_04.htm
Fundamental Bodies of the State
Unitary Structure of the State and the Administration
The Election System and Political Parties
C. Web Site of the Turkish Grand National Assembly
The Constitutional Tradition and Parliamentary Life http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/english/about_tgna.htm
THE FIRST CONSTITUTION
THE FIRST PARLIAMENT
THE TRANSITION TO NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY
THE ERZURUM CONGRESS
THE SIVAS CONGRESS
THE NATIONAL PACT
FOUNDING OF THE TURKISH GRAND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
WAR AND PEACE
THE CONSTITUTION OF 1921
PROCLAMATION OF THE REPUBLIC
THE CONSTITUTION OF 1924
THE TRANSITION TO A MULTI-PARTY PERIOD
THE CONSTITUTION OF 1961
THE CONSTITUTION OF 1982
The General Principles of the Constitution
The Turkish Grand National Assembly* and its Working order
ORGANIZATION RIGHT TO VOTE AND BE ELECTED
THE FUNCTIONS AND POWERS OF THE TGNA
CONVENTION AND ADJOURNMENT
THE BUREAU OF THE ASSEMBLY
POLITICAL PARTY GROUPS
CHANGING THE CONSTITUTION
THE TURKISH GRAND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY'S SUPERVISORY FUNCTION
ADMINISTRATIVE AND SERVICE UNITS
D. Mustafa Sarımollaoğlu's Web Page
E. "Turkish Politics" by Ugur Akinci
F. Web Site of the Turkish Constitutional Law
Kemal Başlar & Hikmet Tülen, "The Constitutional Court: 1962-2003 (An Introduction to the Composition and Functions of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Turkey)", www.anayasa.gen.tr/baslar1.htm
Constitutional Court of the Republic of Turkey (Anayasa Mahkemesi)
- The English translations of some decisions of the Turkish Constitutional Court can be found at the CODICES database of the Venice Commission. < http://codices.coe.int/NXT/gateway.dll?f=templates&fn=default.htm >
On the left menu, click on CODICES > Précis - Décisions abrégées > English > Europe > Turkey.
Council of State (Danıştay)
Supreme Military Administrative Court (Askeri Yüksek İdare Mahkemesi)
Supreme Election Council (Yüksek Seçim Kurulu)
6 June 2008: The Turkish Constitutional Court annulled the Constitutional Amendments that would allow women to wear the Muslim headscarf at Turkish universities.
The Annulment Decision dated 5 June 2008, numbered E.2008/16, K.2008/116, is not yet published in the Official Gazette. The Decision dated 5 June 2008, numbered E.2008/16, K.2008/16 (YD), which was published in the Official Gazette dated 13 June 2008, numbered 26905 is a stay order. It is not a full decision (not a reasoned decision). There is no written statement of reasons for decision. The Turkish text of stay order is available at http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2008/06/20080613-4.htm or http://www.anayasa.gov.tr/eskisite/KARARLAR/IPTALITIRAZ/YD/k-2008-16yd.htm
The English translation of that stay order is not available.
The Reasoned Annulment Decision dated 5 June 2008, numbered E.2008/16, K.2008/116, is not yet published, so its English translation does not exist. (Before Oct. 22, 2008)
A report of events, in English, and Timeline of headscarf status, are available in Today's Zaman, June, 7, 2008 at http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=144047
Oct. 22, 2008: The Reasoned Annulment Decision dated 5 June 2008, numbered E.2008/16, K.2008/116, is published in the Official Journal, Oct. 22, 2008, No. 27032. The Turkish text of this decision is available at http://www.anayasa.gov.tr/eskisite/KARARLAR/IPTALITIRAZ/K2008/K-2008-116.htm (web site of the Turkish Constitutional Court) or
http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2008/10/20081022-15.htm (web site of Official Journal).
The English translation of that decision is not available (Feb. 2009).
- Dec. 20, 2008: Kemal Gözler, Judicial Review of Constitutional Amendments: A Comparative Study, Bursa, Ekin Press, 2008, XII+ 126 p. is published. An online version of this book is available at http://www.anayasa.gen.tr/jrca.htm (Dec. 20, 2008)
Editor: Kemal Gözler
Original URL: http://www.anayasa.gen.tr/english.htm
Maintained by Kemal Gözler
Original date: May 25, 2004 Last Updated: Feb. 9, 2009.
(c) 2004-2009. K. Gözler